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Diabetes Mellitus – Type 2

Visual Learner: Let’s begin with some YouTube Video Links! https://youtu.be/JAjZv41iUJU

Type 2 diabetes is a long-term disease. You may have heard the term Chronic disease, or chronic diabetes mellitus to describe it. In type 2 diabetes, one of two things may be present:

  • The pancreas does not secrete enough insulin
  • Cells in the body do not respond properly to insulin. (This is called insulin resistance)

When we eat, our body breaks down food to use as nutrients. One of these nutrients is Glucose. Glucose is used for energy through our body. Insulin is a hormone produced by our pancreas to assist with the transfer of glucose from our bloodstream onto our organs. Insulin resistance or lack of insulin production by our pancreas will cause an excess of glucose to circulate in our bloodstream. As a result, hyperglycemia develops.

What are your risk factors?

There are many risk factors for developing Type 2 diabetes. These include:

  • Having a family history of Diabetes.
  • Being overweight or obese.
  • Having a sedentary lifestyle. (Lack of activity)
  • Being diagnosed with insulin resistance.
  • Ethnicity. Hispanics/Latino, African/American, American/Indian, and Asian/Pacific Islanders are at an increased risk for diabetes.

But don’t worry! Knowing your risk factors is half the battle!

There are many things we can do to minimize our risk despite our risk factors. Examples include: Being more active or incorporating routine exercise into our lives, being cautious of what we eat, and keeping routine visits with your primary care providers.

What are the signs and symptoms of Diabetes type 2?

It is possible to have minimal to no symptoms early on, however, as the disease progresses, you may experience some of the following:

  • Increase thirst or hunger.
  • Increase in urination or urination during the night.
  • Unexplained weight loss.
  • Fatigue and weakness.
  • Vision changes.
  • Recurrent infections.
  • Cuts and bruises that heal slowly. (If you know to be diabetic, routine foot care and daily self foot evaluation is recommended.)
  • Tingling or numbness in the hands and feet.
  • Dark patches on the skin.

If you experience any of these symptoms, you should schedule a prompt follow-up with your primary care provider.

How is diabetes diagnosed?

Visual Learner: Time for another YouTube Video Link! https://youtu.be/pAb0Odjj5xE

Diabetes Mellitus is diagnosed based on symptoms, medical history, a physical exam, and blood glucose levels. There are multiple types of blood tests your primary care provider can order to formulate a diagnosis. These include:

  • A fasting blood glucose test. (FBG)
    • This test is done on an empty stomach (fasting). You will not be allowed to eat at least 8 hours prior to the blood sample being taken.
      • You may be diagnosed if your FBG level is 126 mg/dL or higher.
  • A hemoglobin A1c blood test.
    • This test provides information on your blood glucose control over the previous 2-3 months.
      • You may be diagnosed if your A1c level is 6.5% or higher.
  • A random blood glucose test.
    • This test is used to check your blood glucose levels any time during the day regardless of when you last ate.
      • You may be diagnosed if your random blood glucose is 200mg/dL or higher.
  • Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)
    • This test measures your blood glucose levels two times. First is a fasting blood glucose level which serves as your baseline. Second, two hours after drinking a beverage containing glucose.
      • You may be diagnosed if your OGTT results are higher than 200mg/L.

Your primary care provider will gather all the information required, test results, and data gathered from a physical assessment to diagnose you with Diabetes Mellitus. We recommend you continue to follow up routinely with your primary care provider. Early detection is the best way to prevent complications.

How to treat Diabetes Mellitus type 2

Visual Learner: Time for another YouTube Video Link! https://youtu.be/qSpAF-JUKEA

Your primary care provider will set individualized treatment goals for you. He may also choose to refer you to a specialist called an endocrinologist. Both providers will set goals for you based on age, other medical conditions you may have, and how you respond to your diabetes treatment. You may received instructions from your primary care team such as:

  • Making lifestyle and diet changes.
  • Checking your blood glucose levels as often as ordered.
  • Take your diabetic medicine or insulin as prescribed.
  • Taking other medications to help prevent complications from diabetes as prescribed.

Your goals of care will be tailored to maintain the following blood glucose levels:

  • Blood glucose of 80-130 mg/dL before meals.
  • Blood glucose below 180 mg/dL after meals.
  • Hemoglobin A1c is less than 7%.

Summary

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic disease that can affect us due to many contributing factors such as ethnicity, family history, dietary, and lifestyle choices. By being informed, routinely following up with your primary care provider, and making small lifestyle improvement. We can all minimize our risk of diabetes mellitus.

As always! We are here to help. At NEHH we strive to provide education and make information readily available. This information is not intended to replace advice given to you by your primary care provider.

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References

Animated Diabetes Patient . (2014, June 9). Treatment and management of type 2 diabetes – youtube. Retrieved March 25, 2022, from https://www.youtube.com/watch/qSpAF-JUKEA

Animated Diabetes Patient . (2014, June 9). Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes – youtube. Retrieved March 25, 2022, from https://www.youtube.com/watch/pAb0Odjj5xE

Animated Diabetes patient . (2014, June 9). Understanding type 2 diabetes – youtube. Retrieved March 25, 2022, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JAjZv41iUJU

© 2015 Prime Medic Inc. (n.d.). Welcome to animated diabetes patient™. Animated Diabetes Patient. Retrieved March 25, 2022, from https://www.animateddiabetespatient.com/en/home.aspx

Copyright 1995–2022. American Diabetes Association®. All rights reserved. (n.d.). American Diabetes Association . American Diabetes Association | Research, Education, Advocacy. Retrieved March 25, 2022, from https://diabetes.org/

Copyright © 2021 Association of Diabetes Care & Education Specialists. All rights reserved. (n.d.). Association of diabetes care & education specialists. Association of Diabetes Care & Education Specialists. Retrieved March 25, 2022, from https://www.diabeteseducator.org/

Disclaimer

Videos have been reviewed by NEHH and are provided for the sole purpose of education. It is not intended to replace advice given to you by your primary care provider.

This information is not intended to replace advice given to you by your primary care provider. NEHH reviews material for accuracy, and all material is referenced for proper work recognition.

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